Treatment Help & Support for HPV, Genital Warts, Anal Warts, Condyloma, and all other types of warts

Glossary

(Source: Wikipedia.org – click the links for full article)

Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) provides advice and guidance on effective control of vaccine-preventable diseases in the U.S. civilian population. The ACIP develops written recommendations for routine administration of vaccines to the pediatric and adult populations, along with vaccination schedules regarding appropriate periodicity, dosage, and contraindications. ACIP statements are official federal recommendations for the use of vaccines and immune globulins in the U.S., and are published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Caesarean section A caesarean section (AE cesarean section), or c-section, is a form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made through a mother’s abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies. It is usually performed when a vaginal delivery would put the baby’s or mother’s life or health at risk, although in recent times it has been also performed upon request for births that would otherwise have been normal. 

Carbon dioxide (CO­2) laserThe carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas lasers to be developed (invented by Kumar Patel of Bell Labs in 1964[1]), and is still one of the most useful. Carbon dioxide lasers are the highest-power continuous wave lasers that are currently available. They are also quite efficient: the ratio of output power to pump power can be as large as 20%.

ColposcopyColposcopy or colcoscopy is a medical diagnostic procedure to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva. Many premalignant lesions and malignant lesions in these areas have discernible characteristics which can be detected thorough the examination. It is done using a colposcope, which provides an enlarged view of the areas, allowing the colposcopist to visually distinguish normal from abnormal appearing tissue and take directed biopsies for further pathological examination.

Condylomata acuminata  – Condyloma (plural: “Condylomata”, from Greek “knob”) refers to an infection of the genitals. The two subtypes are: 1. “condylomata acuminata”, another term for genital warts – caused by human papilloma virus; 2. “condylomata lata”, white lesions associated with secondary syphilis.

CryosurgeryCryosurgery (cryotherapy) is the application of extreme cold to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue. Cryosurgery is used to treat a number of diseases and disorders, especially skin conditions.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for the safety regulation of most types of foods, dietary supplements, drugs, vaccines, biological medical products, blood products, medical devices, radiation-emitting devices, veterinary products, and cosmetics. The FDA also enforces section 361 of the Public Health Service Act and the associated regulations, including sanitation requirements on interstate travel as well as specific rules for control of disease on products ranging from pet turtles to semen donations for assisted reproductive medicine techniques.

Fordyce’s spotsFordyce’s spots, or Fordyce granules are small, painless, raised, pale or white spots or bumps 1 to 3 mm in diameter that may appear on the shaft of the penis or on the labia, as well as the inner surface and vermilion border of the lips of the face. They are common in men and women of all ages. They are named after an American dermatologist, John Addison Fordyce. On the head of the penis, they are called Tyson glands, not to be confused with pearly penile papules.

  
 

Gardasil  – Gardasil is a vaccine against certain types of the human papillomavirus (HPV), manufactured by Merck & Co. Gardasil is designed to prevent infection with HPV types 16, 18, 6, and 11. HPV types 16 and 18 cause about 70% of HPV-related cervical cancer cases. In addition, some types of HPV, particularly type 16, have been found to be associated with oropharyngeal squamous-cell carcinoma, a form of throat cancer. HPV types 6 and 11 cause about 90% of genital wart cases. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer world-wide, and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developing countries.

Genital wartsGenital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious. sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). It is spread through direct skin-to-skin contact during oral, genital, or anal sex with an infected partner. Genital warts are the most easily recognized sign of genital HPV infection. They can be caused by strains 6, 11, 30, 42, 43, 44, 45, 51, 52 and 54 of genital HPV; types 6 and 11 are responsible for 90% of genital warts cases. Most people who acquire those strains never develop warts or any other symptoms. HPV also causes many cases of cervical cancer; types 16 and 18 account for 70% of cases; however, the strains of HPV that cause genital warts are not linked to the strains that cause cancer.

Hirsuties papillaris genitalisHirsuties papillaris genitalis (more commonly referred to as “pearly penile papules“, or PPP) is a harmless clinical skin condition of the male genital organs. It is a harmless physiological phenomenon with no malignant potential. The papules appear as one or several rows of small, flesh-colored, smooth, dome-topped bumps situated circumferentially around the corona (see image) or sulcus of the glans penis. Uncommonly, lesions may extend onto the glans penis. It is not a sexually transmitted disease and its appearance is unrelated to sexual activity or standards of personal hygiene. The bumps are however extremely sensitive and many sufferers view this sensitivity as unwelcome.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) Papillomaviruses are a diverse group of DNA-based viruses that infect the skin and mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. Over 100 different human papillomavirus (HPV) types have been identified. Some HPV types may cause warts while others may cause a subclinical infection resulting in precancerous lesions. All HPVs are transmitted by skin-to-skin contact.

ImiquimodImiquimod (INN) is a prescription medication that acts as an immune response modifier. It is marketed by MEDA AB, Graceway Pharmaceuticals and iNova Pharmaceuticals under the trade name Aldara and by Mochida as Beselna.

InterferonInterferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune system of most vertebrates in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, parasites and tumor cells. Interferons belong to the large class of glycoproteins known as cytokines. Interferons are produced by a wide variety of cells in response to the presence of double-stranded RNA, a key indicator of viral infection. Interferons assist the immune response by inhibiting viral replication within host cells, activating natural killer cells, increasing antigen presentation to lymphocytes, and inducing the resistance of host cells to viral infection. When the antigen is presented to matching T and B cells, those cells multiply and strategically and specifically wipe out the foreign substance. That is why antigen presentation is so important to the immune response.

Laryngeal papillomatosis Laryngeal papillomatosis, also known as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, is a rare medical condition, caused by an HPV infection of the throat. It causes assorted tumors, papillomas, to develop over a period of time. Without treatment it is potentially fatal as uncontrolled growths could obstruct the airway.

Liquid nitrogenLiquid nitrogen (liquid density at the triple point is 0.807 g/mL) is the liquid produced industrially in large quantities by fractional distillation of liquid air and is often referred to by the abbreviation, LN2. It is pure nitrogen, in a liquid state. Liquid nitrogen has the UN number 1977.

Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP)The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) is currently one of the most commonly used approaches to treating high grade cervical dysplasia discovered on colposcopic examination. It is also known as “large loop excision of the transformation zone” (LLETZ). The procedure has many advantages including low cost, high success rate, and ease of use. The procedure can be done in an office setting and usually only requires a local anesthetic, though sometimes a general anesthetic is used.

Molluscum contagiosum (MC)Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. MC has no animal reservoir, infecting only humans, as did smallpox. However, there are different pox viruses that infect many other mammals. The infecting human MC virus is a DNA poxvirus called the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). There are 4 types of MCV, MCV-1 to -4, with MCV-1 being the most prevalent and MCV-2 seen usually in adults and often sexually transmitted. The incidence of MC infections in young children is around 17% and peaks between 2-12 years of age. MC affects any area of the skin but is most common on the body, arms, and legs. It is spread through direct contact or shared articles of clothing (including towels).

Pap smearIn gynecology, the Papanikolaou test or Papanicolaou test (also called Pap smear, Pap test, cervical smear, or smear test) is a medical screening method, invented independently by Aurel Babe?[1] and Georgios Papanikolaou, primarily designed to detect premalignant and malignant processes in the ectocervix. It may also detect infections and abnormalities in the endocervix and endometrium.

PodofiloxPodophyllotoxin, otherwise known as podofilox, is a non-alkaloid toxin in the lignan family present at concentrations of 0.3 to 1.0% by mass in the rhizome of American Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum). Another common source of podophyllotoxin is the rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae).

Salicylic acidSalicylic acid (from the Latin word for the willow tree, Salix, from whose bark it can be obtained) is a beta hydroxy acid (BHA) with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. This colorless crystalline organic acid is widely used in organic synthesis and functions as a plant hormone. It is derived from the metabolism of salicin. It is probably best known as a compound that is chemically similar but not identical to the active component of aspirin. In fact, salicylic acid is a metabolite of aspirin, the product of esterase hydrolysis in the liver.

Seborrheic keratosesSeborrheic keratosis consists of benign, verrucous (wart-like), often pigmented, greasy lesions consisting of proliferating epidermal cells which usually occur after the third decade. A common occurrence among black people is the appearance of many small lesions on the face, known as dermatosis papulosa nigra. Leser-Trelat sign, the explosive onset of multiple pruritic seborrheic keratoses, often with an inflammatory base, can be an ominous sign of internal malignancy, especially stomach carcinoma.

Solar keratosesActinic keratosis (also called solar keratosis, or AK) is a premalignant condition of thick, scaly, or crusty patches of skin. It is most common in fair-skinned people who are frequently exposed to the sun, because their pigment isn’t very protective. It usually is accompanied by solar damage. Since some of these pre-cancers progress to squamous cell carcinoma, they should be treated. When skin is exposed to the sun constantly, thick, scaly, or crusty bumps appear. The scaly or crusty part of the bump is dry and rough. The growths start out as flat scaly areas, and later grow into a tough, wart-like area.

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA)Trichloroacetic acid (also known as trichloroethanoic acid) is an analogue of acetic acid in which the three hydrogen atoms of the methyl group have all been replaced by chlorine atoms. It is a strong acid, comparable to sulfuric acid. It is prepared by the reaction of chlorine with acetic acid in the presence of a suitable catalyst.

 

 

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